Satellite internet

Click on your world region to go details of satellite internet in your country.
Button with arrow on map of North and South America Button with arrow on map of Europe Button with arrow on map of Africa Button with arrow on map of Middle East Button with arrow on map of Asia and Australia

The above five regional links provide review details of a number of companies selling satellite internet to end user customers. Due to the many new satellite internet companies set up in the past ten years you need to read those pages carefully and also review the further companies listed towards the ends of those pages.

Dish pointing: To lat-long finder calculator Find your latitude and longitude (For VSAT and TV dish pointing - gives image of your house plus azimuth, elevation and polarization angles). Satellite dish azimuth and elevation pointing calculator (Maths only : you need to know your lat and long first.)

Discussion forum:  Tell us your problems or help others with your experiences in the forum:.
Satellite broadband forum Go to my Satellite Internet forum (main page),or view the 20 recent posts now or go to popular sub-sections of the forum:  Wildblue  Tooway  Africa  Middle East  iDirect

Teleport hub antenna

List of satellites in the geostationary orbit.      VSAT information index.
Satellite link budget calculator.
Noise temperature, noise figure and noise factor.
Microwave spectrum analysers for sale & hire.
Frequency spectrums and on-line spectrum analyser (Not in service).
Great circle azimuth calculator, lat, long, bearing & range for point to point terrestrial applications.
Pictures of some geostationary satellites taken from the ground.
Eric Johnston's CV.
How to set up antenna reflector panels using fishing line.
Axial ratio and cross polar discrimination ( XPD ) interference.
Eutelsat beacon frequencies.
Explanation of satellite TV Polar mount plus examples.
Ku transmit reject / receive bandpass filters for sale as used for satellite internet.
Traffic analysis for this web site.            W3A.
Space images and news today.
Find your latitude and longitude (for VSAT and TV dish pointing purposes).
See a satellite photo of your home.
Information about interference if you operate satellite internet in C band.
SATSIG search Please try my new search engine for satellite internet related searches.

This web site is here to promote legitimate, satellite internet for people in all locations, who are unable to gain access using terrestrial ADSL via copper or optic fibre phone lines or using cable modems. Satcom is an alternative and provides independent small-dish two-way access from anywhere except the extreme polar regions.

Spectrum analyser display




Find what you are looking for on this web site.

VSAT dish

There are over 300 communications satellites in the geostationary orbit, directly above the equator, spaced typically 2 or 3 degrees apart. Because they orbit the earth at the same speed and in the same direction as the earth rotates they remain fixed in the sky and you can use a fixed pointing very small aperture terminal (VSAT) to communicate. The maximum possible coverage area from any one orbit position is approx one third of the earth, as that is all that is visible from the orbit position at a height of 35726 km. For example, a satellite above the equator to south of India can provide coverage which includes South Africa, Europe to Japan and Australia, as well as India which is almost directly below it. To help with small dish operations spot beams are pointed down at particular areas. This web site shows many such beam coverage areas. In general smaller spot beams permit smaller earth station dishes.  The satellites are owned by large multinational companies or by specific national companies. Intelsat, NewSkies and Eutelsat are examples of international and regional operators providing satellite internet capacity.

At Ka band, there is a trend towards the spot beam design and the VSAT technology used being all determined by the satellite owner, with smaller reseller companies employed to essentially sell "Satellite broadband" to end users customer, collect the money and resolve as much as possible of the customer support locally.

The capacity for satellite internet is measured in amounts of transponder bandwidth (MHz) and downlink eirp power (dBW) and uplink G/T (dBK) and sensitivity (dBW/^m2) are sold to satellite internet service providers who have teleports with groups of large earth station dishes.  The conversion of bandwidth, measured in MHz, to information data rate is complex and depends on modulation method (e.g BPSK, QPSK, 8-QAM or 16-QAM) and the forward error correction coding rate (e.g 1/2, 3/4 or 7/8) and the type of FEC (e.g. Turbo Code, Viterbi, Low Density Parity Check or  Reed Soloman or combination thereof).  The size of the dishes used also affects the achieved capacity.  Using a larger dish may markedly reduce costs per Mbit/s.

Satellite internet companies then sell the service to end users by providing them with equipment and with monthly download (Mbytes) capacity, plus customer support.

Customer equipment consists of a small dish, from 60cm to 3.7m diameter, at least equipped with a receiver module (LNB definition = Low Noise Block down-converter) and transmit module (BUC definition = Block Up-Converter). See pictures of typical customer VSAT installations. The indoor equipment receives the signals and extract data for the customer's PC or local area network. The indoor equipment also prepares data for transmission, typically in very brief TDMA bursts whenever the mouse is clicked to send a request to the internet.

Monthly bit rate rental is specified, for example, as 512k down / 64k up shared 20:1 at price $202 per month.  This price is per VSAT customer terminal (i.e. $4032 per month in total).  Such a service would suit 1 or 2 PCs per site.  When you are downloading a file the speed may be up to 512k bit/s. With 50:1 sharing you would find that for much of the time the available bit rate is lower - as other people will be using the capacity at the same time. In shared arrangements there are often monthly download and upload limits (measured in G bytes per month) per customer, so that one user cannot block everyone else. Such fair-use or fair-access-policies (FAP) policies can be complex and, for example, may allow 50 Mbytes to be downloaded at high speed (say at 355 kbit/s) with such activity then followed by several hours of restricted lower speed 128kbit/s service until the service returns to high speed at the end of the day. Such policies vary greatly from one service provider to another.    When calculating the downlink bit rate capacity required, allow 14 kbit/s per PC, so if you have 100 PCs in your local area network (LAN) you need at least 1 Mbit/s dedicated download rate.  Uplink bit rates required are about 1/3rd of the downlink rate. If your use is only web browsing then the up/down ratio is about 1/5.  If you do lots of VoIP calls then you need more equal capacity up and down.  Remember you only get what you pay for.  As a rough estimate, for C and Ku bands, if you see a monthly tariff, divide it by $70 and that will give you the number of PCs that you can connect in your LAN.  Don't believe marketing hype about "unlimited" downloads on what are, in reality, shared services. For lower cost Ka band such as Wildblue, Tooway and Avanti-Hylas, figures as low as $40 - $80 per month may apply for basic home satellite internet access. 

If you need dedicated satellite internet, for services like VoIP which require at least 11kbit/s each way all the time the call is in progress then dedicated continuous information rate service (CIR) is appropriate. Dedicated service is very many times as expensive than shared service but is suitable for internet cafes, businesses and community ISPs. A VSAT terminal is therefore often shared amongst a community of users to share the cost of the monthly charges.

This is not a price comparison site.  You need to contact any of the companies mentioned directly and ask them for prices.

Operation is in microwave frequency bands called C band (4/6GHz), Ku band (11/14GHz) and Ka band (20/30 GHz). C band is ideal for heavy rain locations. Ku band is the most popular with dish sizes in the range 60cm - 1.8m diameter.   Widespread consumer oriented Ka band spot-beam services exist in the US and Canada. Examples are Wildblue and Viasat Exede. In Europe, Ka band preliminary services operated on Hotbird for several years and in Spring 2011 a major Tooway satellite internet service has started on KA-SAT.  Read more in the Tooway and KA-SAT forum.  More recently HYLAS has started operation, with Europe, Middle East and Africa coverage. Yahsat also provided Ka band spot beam service in the Middle East and a number of Africa countries. Wide bandwidths are available for satellite service in Ka band and this combined with satellites having very many spot beams means reduced costs to end users.  Minimum tariffs for home users around $30 - $40 per month. Ka band suffers from severe rain attenuation and reduced bit rates and outages should be expected.

In equatorial areas (up to +/- 45 deg latitude) O3b is planning a revolutionary, medium height, orbit system intended for town ISPs and cell phone trunking, also for relaying massive data files from maritime seismic survey vessels.  The customer sites will each have two antennas, tracking the satellites as they move across the sky from west to east. Reduced latency or delay, due the reduced distance to medium orbit height is a key selling point.

Emails sent to me asking for space segment leases, asking for VSAT services or equipment or asking for satellite internet etc may be forwarded to any possible suppliers unless you specifically request otherwise.    This site contains a favourite icon (favicon)   Reviews of equipment and services are welcome. Please e-mail me Eric Johnston. I am pleased to accept technical reviews and descriptions of alternative technologies and ways of providing services.  Please send your images also.  If you have a web site, please put text links direct to specific pages here, rather than copying pages.  Your cooperation would be appreciated, thank you.

All content Copyright (c) 1999-2014 SSL Ltd. All rights reserved.   Established web site since 1 Jan 1999.  Legal disclaimer, terms of use and conditions and non-privacy statement. Your use of this site implies that you accept cookies. The forum software makes cookies.

This web site started off on a SUN Sparc10, then SUN Sparc 20, then to a leased SUN NETRA T-1 server, and most recently to cheap leased Virtual Machine (VM).

Index to miscellaneous pagesFrance - Internet par satellite.     Deutschland Satellite Internet.   Vipersat VSAT hub.  High resolution satellite photo images. EU constitution treaty

Ku band BUC sale.

Information about how an LNB works and LNBs for sale.

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"Satellite Signals", "SSL", "SatSig" and "Ivsat" are TradeMarks.   Last updated 1 June 2014
Other names used on this page, SUN, Solaris, Wildblue, Intelsat, NewSkies and Eutelsat are trade names of the respective companies.